30Sep 2019
Silvia Salvadori Blog Article

Recently, in Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research v. Iancu, the Federal Circuit agreed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) with regard to the Patent Term Adjustment (PTA) for U.S. Patent No. 8,981,063. The issue was whether the interpretation of “any time consumed by continued examination of the application requested by the applicant” was correct.

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13Sep 2019
Blog article by Silvia Salvadori - Infringement Under the Doctrine of Equivalents: 2 Cases Examined

In two recent cases, the Federal Circuits held that claim amendments at issue were “tangential” to the “equivalent” at issue, and upheld findings of infringement.

The case details are below: 

Case #1: Ajinomoto Co. v. ITC 

The claim amendment at issue related to an encoding nucleotide sequence. The original claim language recited “a protein which comprises an amino acid sequence including deletion, substitution, insertion or addition of one or several amino acids in the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2,” and was replaced with “a protein which comprises an amino acid sequence that is encoded by a nucleotide sequence that hybridizes with the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 under stringent conditions.”

The Federal Circuit agreed with ITC’s determination that the amendment was “tangential” to the equivalent at issue based on the following:

  • The rationale for the amendment was to limit the set of proteins claimed so that it no longer included a protein found in the prior art and was not related with choosing among several DNA sequences in the redundant genetic code that correspond to the same protein.

Thus, according to the Federal Circuit, prosecution history estoppel did not bar application of the doctrine of equivalents.

Case #2: Eli Lilly and Co. v. Hospira, Inc.

During prosecution, the language of administering “pemetrexed sodium” was amended to administering “an antifolate” to distinguish the claims from a prior art reference.

The accused products contained pemetrexed ditremethamine, not pemetrexed sodium, but the Federal Circuit found that the amendment was “tangential” to the equivalent, and thus prosecution history estoppel did not apply.  

The amendment was not related to the type of salt, thus, the applicant did not surrender other pemetrexed salts.

Final Thoughts

Even if within these cases it was possible to find infringement under the doctrine of equivalents, it should be kept in mind that where the reason for the amendment and the equivalent in question both relate to the same claim element, the tangential exception does not apply.

Please contact me at silvia@salvadorilaw.com with questions or comments.

Silvia Salvadori, PhD

Silvia Salvadori, PhD



26Aug 2019
Silvia Salvadori - USPTO Proposes Numerous Fee Increases Across the Board

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has proposed to modify the fees associated with all aspects of patent filing and maintenance. The proposal includes an increase — by about 25% — of the petition fees and institution fees for all post-grant proceedings. 

Post-Grant Proceeding Fee Increases

The total fees due will bring the total costs to:

  • $40,000+ for an Inter Partes Review (IPR); and
  • $50,000+ for Post Grant Review (PGR) or Covered Business Method (CBM).
  • A petition challenging more than 20 claims will increase by approximately 25%
  • Non-registered patent attorney admitted to practice before the PTAB will have to pay a new $250 “pro hac vice” fee.  

Issue Fee Increases 

  • Issue fees will increase to $1,200; 
  • the 3.5 year maintenance fees will increase to $2,000;
  • the surcharge will increase to $500.

These are the applicable large entity fees.  Small entity fees will be 50% of the above.

Other Fee Increases

  • The fee for requesting  expedited examination of a design application will increase to $2,000 for a large entity. 
  • If a utility application is not filed in DOCX format, the USPTO will issue a new charge of $400.

This slide deck (USPTO.gov) explains the proposal in further detail. Please note that written comments regarding these fee increases are due to the USPTO by September 30, 2019.

These increases have been justified to enhance the quality and timeliness of patent prosecution.  Another reason why the USPTO proposed these fee increases is to replenish the USPTO coffers, since patent application filings had decreased, perhaps due to the difficulties generated by the recent U.S. Supreme Court on subject matter eligibility?

Silvia Salvadori, PhD

Silvia Salvadori, PhD



26Jul 2019

Silvia Salvadori - “Ipsis verbis” Claim Language: Not Enough to Support a Sufficient Written Description Nuvo Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Inc. is an interesting case, recently decided by the Federal Circuit. The claims at issue were directed to a pharmaceutical composition of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) coated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The aim of the invention was to provide a formulation of a NSAID which did not provoke bleeding in the stomach.

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09Jul 2019

Silvia Salvadori - USPTO: State of Patent Eligibility The Senate IP subcommittee recently held three public hearings on the state of patent eligibility. It clearly appeared that relatively recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions have left companies, universities, and investors confused and unable to understand what is patentable and what is not. The consequences are very important because currently, companies are reluctant to start investigating and investing time and money in areas that are not clearly identified as patent-eligible. Continue reading

20Jun 2019

Silvia Salvadori - Invention Patents Become Harder to Obtain. What Can Be Done?On May 22, 2019, the draft language of a bipartisan bill meant to amend  section 101 of 35 U.S.C. was released by Senators Tom Tillis and Chris Coons. The sponsors say the bill is needed because recent Supreme Court rulings have rendered more difficult to patent certain types of inventions (diagnostic methods, software, and business methods).

The consternation over the Court’s opinion rested not only on how limited the ability to protect critical innovations that drive the U.S. economy, but also how vague the Justices left the line between inventions that are eligible for patent and those that are not. The proposed modification includes changes in the language of the statute (35 U.S.C. § 101): Section 101: Continue reading

30Apr 2019

Silvia Salvadori - Provisional Patent Application Lessons: Adequate Specificity Provisional applications are generally used to provide a valid priority date for an invention claimed in a subsequent non-provisional application. However, even a well drafted provisional application may fail to describe the claimed invention with “adequate specificity.”

In a recent case, Purdue Pharma L.P. v. Iancu, the main claim was directed to a controlled release oral solid dosage form of oxycodone. The patent was challenged and found invalid as obvious. The plaintiff appealed. Continue reading

05Mar 2019

Silvia Salvadori - Patent Term Adjustment Deductions — Important Lessons

In the recent decision Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Iancu, the Federal Circuit held that the USPTO wrongly imposed a Patent Term Adjustment (PTA) to the applicant for an Information Disclosures Statement (IDS) filed after a Request for Continued Examination (RCE).

Patent Term Adjustment Statute

The PTA statute establishes that an award in patent term should correspond to a deduction (of patent term) for any delay caused by the applicant’s failure to engage in activities that aim to conclude prosecution of the application. Under PTA rules, the USPTO can charge the applicant with a delay when the applicant files an IDS after having filed an RCE, but before the next Office Action or Notice of Allowance.  Continue reading

08Feb 2019

Silvia Salvadori - USPTO Update: Revised Patent Subject Matter Eligibility Guidance On January 7, 2019 the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) issued a Revised Patent Subject Matter Eligibility Guidance in the Federal Register Notice. The Guidance revises the procedures for determining whether a patent claim or patent application claim is directed to a judicial exception (laws of nature, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas) under Step 2A of the USPTO’s Subject Matter Eligibility Guidance in two ways. Continue reading

10Jan 2019

Silvia Salvadori - USPTO Announces RPA Initiative for Continuing Applications  The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is implementing the first phase of the Access to Relevant Prior Art Initiative (“RPA Initiative”) to import from the immediate parent application into the continuing application.

RPA Initiative Explained:

In a continuing application, the citations corresponding to the documents considered by the examiner will be printed on the face of the patent issuing from the continuing application without the applicant having to resubmit the information on an Information Disclosure Statement. Additionally, an applicant’s duty to disclose information in the continuing application will continue to be satisfied for information considered in the parent application — and will be satisfied for any additional information made of record by the USPTO  in the continuing application.

The USPTO plans to implement the RPA Initiative in phases, to consider and address public and examiners’ feedback at each phase and determine how to effectively expand the RPA Initiative in future phases. Continue reading